Background

With its 17.504 islands Indonesia is well known as the largest archipelago in the world. Meanwhile, between 2010 and 2050, Asia's urban population is anticipated to double in size to 3.2 billion. By 2050, two-thirds of Asia's population will be urban. Cities have a high concentration of people and economic activities but are resource intensive, accounting for 75% of both energy consumption and carbon emissions (ADB, 2016). This geographical configuration and rapid urbanization give a big challenge in developing sustainable energy system.

The Indonesia's electricity consumption per capita is still low compared to some ASEAN countries. Moreover, many islands in Indonesia have still low or even very low ratio of electrification. This provides challenge to develop energy system for both urban and rural areas in Indonesia.

The Government of Indonesia is committed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 26% in 2020 from the condition in the absence of mitigation actions and up to 41% with international assistance. For 2030, the government aims to mitigate GHG emissions by 29% or up to 41% with international assistance as delivered in the COP 21 meeting in Paris. However, as Indonesia faces the dependency to fossil fuels in its energy mix, it requires a comprehensive effort to achieve these targets.

Generally it is needed to combine approach of increasing role of renewable energy and energy efficiency. Indonesia has several sources of renewable energy, which should be optimally used to develop a sustainable energy system. These potentials should be develop also for the community in outer or remote islands, which have no access to electricity. Besides, there is strong demand on implementation of energy efficient building or nearly zero energy building (NZEB). Furthermore, every opportunity to combine different types of renewable energy in hybrid system and to integrate renewable energy in the building should be continuously explored and developed.

As a tropical archipelago, which faces urbanization, Indonesia should always explore various ways of innovation in particular suitable technology and system. It needs a well-managed systematical R&D as well as wide scale implementation program in comprehensive approach. It also needs a strong network involving various national and international players. Therefore, a centre of collaborative research is among the solutions.

There are many problems that happened after renewable energy system and energy efficient constructions are built. Developing capacity of local industry and other elements is very important to shape an enabling environment for sustainability of benefit that should be provided by various infrastructures. It is also needed to develop a supporting network involving relevant actors in Indonesia. Academia, local government, NGO, community, vocational school should play their particular roles to develope sustainable energy system in Indonesia. It is a strong demand to apply comprehensive approach to meet the sustainability criterias.

Based on the above background, Pusat Studi Energi (Center for Energy Studies) Universitas Gadjah Mada (PSE UGM) and its seven affiliates (University of Colorado Boulder, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bogor Agricultural Institute, Universitas Indonesia, Universitas Bangka Belitung, Universitas Muhammadiyah Gorontalo and Universitas Negeri Gorontalo) propose a Centre for Development of Sustainable Region (CDSR) to conduct a sustainable multidisciplinary collaboration. The goal of this research center is implementing hybrid energy system and energy efficiency and the supporting network to develop sustainable tropical archipelago.

The CDSR has three targeted outcomes, as follow 1) increased capacity of faculty, staff, Ph.D. students and post-doctoral researchers in lead and its Indonesian affiliates universities, 2) strengthened institutional environment for research and management in lead institution and its Indonesian affiliates universities and 3) development of sustainable archipelago region

In order to achieve these outcomes, there are six main collaborative research topics that will be conducted in this proposed CDSR: 1) To develop decentralized photovoltaics-and-bioenergy-based hybrid system for tropical rural and urban area, 2) To build online integrated energy monitoring system for tropical coastal rural area and urban area, 3) To develop the prototype of Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) for Nearly Zero-Energy Building (NZEB) in tropical urban area, 4) To develop capacity of local industry and other elements of the supporting network , 5) To increase role of women in developing the sustainable energy system, 6) To develop method for determining sustainability level of the hybrid energy system.

In general, to run the program, UGM as the lead has following role and responsibilities: 1) To host proposed CDSR, 2) To hire and maintain proposed CDSR staff members, 3) To manage IIE/USAID SHERA award funds, 4) To report regularly to IIE/USAID SHERA on program implementation and use of funds, 5) To maintain communication with and coordinate program activities among proposed CDSR partnership members, 6) To host, and manage logistical arrangements for CDSR events, 7) To conduct outreach and manage communications for CDSR events, 8) To send scholars on exchange visits to University of Colorado and its partners and 9) To develop and maintain CDSR portal.

Meanwhile, each affiliate generally has following role and responsibilities: 1) To hire and maintain partnership staff members, 2) To manage USAID SHERA second-tier award funds, 3) To report to UGM on program implementation and use of award funds, 4) To host and coordinate partnership activities and events, and 5) To send scholars on exchange visits to University of Colorado and its partners.

Sustainability

The proposed program has main targets: sustainability. The sustainability includes all aspects as follow 1) benefit of energy system installed/developed in selected regions and 2) collaboration center (the proposed CDSR) involving the five parties. The proposed program will build strong network between involved universities with their stakeholders (NGOs, industries, and governments). It will be implemented through the supply chain and supporting network.

After the period of this SHERA grant the proposed CDSR will conduct several activities to guarantee the sustainable benefit and continuous development of the system built by the SHERA grant. The activities include 1) Formalized the CDSR institution as an important hub in ASEAN higher education development with strong partnership to USA HEIs, 2) Integration of relevant content of e-learning especially in UGM, UI, ITB and IPB developed by faculty members involved in the proposed CDSR, 3) Developing CDSR as a significant locomotive for research development in HEIs, mainly in eastern part of Indonesia, 4) Optimization of role of the CDSR to accelerate capacity development of Indonesia industry in renewable energy and green city and 5) Optimization of role of the CDSR to strengthen the functional network to several relevant ministries to develop sustainable archipelago.

Table 2 presents role and responsibilities of various stakeholders which will be included in the sustainability scheme of the CDSR.
# Institutions Role and Responsibilities
1 Group of Local Community 1) To participate in training; 2) To participate in operation and maintenance of PV and Biorefinery System
2 Vocational School 1) To participate in training and seminar; 2) To develop unit for maintenance and repair of PV system; 3) To produce component of PV system
3 Non-Affiliate HEI 1) To participate in open lecture, seminar and training; 2) To provide a support in improving management of research and development
4 Private Business/Enterprise To provide support for business and supply chain development
5 Local/Regional Government To provide supporting access in developing draft of policy that encourage implementation of BIPV-NZEB and Biorefinery
6 International Organization To provide access and support needed by CDSR to conduct international dessimination and network development.

HEI's Role & Responsibilities

Universitas Gadjah Mada

# Activities Sub-Activities
1 Training, Seminar Training on Biorefinery, Training on PV & Smart Grid, CCR Seminar, Open Lecture on Smart Grid (US)
2 Increased capacity of Indonesia HEIs to implement R&D in tropical NZEB Selecting existing buildings in Yogyakarta and then increasing their energy performance.
3 Increased capacity of Indonesia HEIs to implement R&D in tropical BIPV 1) increasing capability of selected buildings in Yogyakarta as laboratory to conduct R&D in PV in tropical area (including comparison between thinfilm and conventional PV type) and its online energy monitoring system, 2) Increasing R&D capability of PV laboratories in UGM in conducting high level research of thin film PV and BIPV-NZEB and its components, and 3) increasing capability of system built by UGM in Karimunjawa as field laboratory of PV in remote islands and its performance monitoring
4 Increased capacity of Indonesia HEIs to implement R&D on Biofuel/Biorefinery 1) Increasing efficiency of R&D microalgae facilities in Yogya, 2) Increasing R&D activities in UBB in biofuel/biorefinery by conducting field multiyears research activity in Semujur (hybrid-energy-based microalgae plant) and 3) Integrating and optimizing indoor and field laboratories for UGM, UI, IPB, UBB and UNG
5 Increased capacity of Indonesia HEIs to implement R&D on Sustainability Aspect 1) increasing capability of UGM in monitoring performance of BIPV-NZEB and biorefinery and 2) increasing capability to conduct capacity building for various stakeholders relevant to sustainability aspect (women, government and other local stakeholders)
6 Increasing capacity of Indonesia HEI in industrial R&D collaboration 1) to develop supply chain network for biofuel/biorefinery and BIPV - NZEB in Yogyakarta, Central Java, West Java, Jakarta, Bangka and Sulawesi, 2) to integrate R&D facilities in UGM to the supply chain and 3) to develop capacity in producing comercial service based on R&D network
7 Increasing capacity of Indonesia HEI in implementing aspect of quality assurance in R&D of PV system component To implement system of quality assurance in PV lab in UGM, and vocational schools in Bangka, Jepara and Gorontalo
8 Paper Grant, International Seminar Grant To Provide and Manage Grant for Academic Paper and International Seminar for CDSR

Universitas Indonesia

# Activities Sub-Activities
1 Training, Seminar Training on Biorefinery, Open Lecture on BIPV NZEB (US), Open Lecture on PV & Smart Grid (US) and Open Lecture on Biorefinery and Microalgae (US)
2 Increased capacity of Indonesia HEIs to implement R&D on Biofuel/Biorefinery 1) Increasing efficiency of R&D microalgae facilities in Yogya, 2) Increasing R&D activities in UBB in biofuel/biorefinery by conducting field multiyears research activity in Semujur (hybrid-energy-based microalgae plant) and 3) Integrating and optimizing indoor and field laboratories for UI
3 Increased capacity of Indonesia HEIs to implement R&D on Sustainability Aspect 1) increasing capability of UI in monitoring performance of BIPV-NZEB and biorefinery and 2) increasing capability to conduct capacity building for various stakeholders relevant to sustainability aspect (women, government and other local stakeholders)
4 Increasing capacity of Indonesia HEI in industrial R&D collaboration 1) to develop supply chain network for biofuel/biorefinery and BIPV - NZEB in West Java and Jakarta, 2) to integrate R&D facilities in Indonesian HEI to the supply chain and 3) to develop capacity in producing comercial service based on R&D network

Institut Teknologi Bandung

# Activities Sub-Activities
1 Training, Seminar Training on Energy Building, Open Lecture on BIPV NZEB (US)
2 Increased capacity of Indonesia HEIs to implement R&D in tropical NZEB Selecting existing buildings in Bandung and then increasing their energy performance
3 Increased capacity of Indonesia HEIs to implement R&D in tropical BIPV 1) increasing capability of selected buildings in Bandung as laboratory to conduct R&D in PV in tropical area (including comparison between thinfilm and conventional PV type) and its online energy monitoring system and 2) Increasing R&D capability of PV laboratories in ITB in conducting high level research of thin film PV and BIPV-NZEB and its components
4 Increased capacity of Indonesia HEIs to implement R&D on Sustainability Aspect
5 Increasing capacity of Indonesia HEI in industrial R&D collaboration 1) to integrate R&D facilities in Indonesian HEI to the supply chain and 2) to develop capacity in producing comercial service based on R&D network
6 Increasing capacity of Indonesia HEI in implementing aspect of quality assurance in R&D of PV system component To implement system of quality assurance in PV lab in ITB

Institut Pertanian Bogor

# Activities Sub-Activities
1 Training, Seminar Open Lecture on Biorefinery (US)
2 Increased capacity of Indonesia HEIs to implement R&D on Biofuel/Biorefinery 1) Increasing R&D activities in UBB in biofuel/biorefinery by conducting field multiyears research activity in Semujur (hybrid-energy-based microalgae plant) and 2) Integrating and optimizing indoor and field laboratories for IPB
3 Increased capacity of Indonesia HEIs to implement R&D on Sustainability Aspect

Universitas Negeri Gorontalo

# Activities Sub-Activities
1 Increased capacity of Indonesia HEIs to implement R&D in tropical NZEB Selecting existing buildings in Gorontalo and then increasing their energy performance.
2 Increased capacity of Indonesia HEIs to implement R&D in tropical BIPV Increasing capability of selected buildings in Gorontalo as laboratory to conduct R&D in PV in tropical (including comparison between thinfilm and conventional PV type) and its online energy monitoring system
3 Increased capacity of Indonesia HEIs to implement R&D on Biofuel/Biorefinery Integrating and optimizing indoor and field laboratories for UNG
4 Increased capacity of Indonesia HEIs to implement R&D on Sustainability Aspect
5 Increasing capacity of Indonesia HEI in industrial R&D collaboration 1) to develop supply chain network for biofuel/biorefinery and BIPV - NZEB in Gorontalo, 2) to integrate R&D facilities in UNG to the supply chain and 3) to develop capacity in producing comercial service based on R&D network

Universitas Bangka Belitung

# Activities Sub-Activities
1 Training, Seminar Training on Research Methodology, Open Lecture on Biorefinery (US)
2 Increased capacity of Indonesia HEIs to implement R&D in tropical NZEB Selecting existing buildings in Bangka and then increasing their energy performance.
3 Increased capacity of Indonesia HEIs to implement R&D in tropical BIPV Increasing capability of selected buildings in Bangka as laboratory to conduct R&D in PV in tropical area and its online energy monitoring system
4 Increased capacity of Indonesia HEIs to implement R&D on Biofuel/Biorefinery 1) Increasing R&D activities in UBB in biofuel/biorefinery by conducting field multiyears research activity in Semujur (hybrid-energy-based microalgae plant) and 2) Integrating and optimizing indoor and field laboratories for UBB
5 Increased capacity of Indonesia HEIs to implement R&D on Sustainability Aspect
6 Increasing capacity of Indonesia HEI in industrial R&D collaboration 1) to develop supply chain network for biofuel/biorefinery and BIPV - NZEB in Bangka, 2) to integrate R&D facilities in UBB to the supply chain and 3) to develop capacity in producing comercial service based on R&D network
7 Increasing capacity of Indonesia HEI in implementing aspect of quality assurance in R&D of PV system component To implement system of quality assurance in PV lab in UBB and vocational schools in Bangka

Universitas Muhammadiyah Gorontalo

# Activities Sub-Activities
1 Training, Seminar Training on Academic Writing
2 Increased capacity of Indonesia HEIs to implement R&D in tropical NZEB Selecting existing buildings in Gorontalo and then increasing their energy performance.
3 Increased capacity of Indonesia HEIs to implement R&D in tropical BIPV Increasing capability of selected buildings in Gorontalo as laboratory to conduct R&D in PV in tropical and its online energy monitoring system
4 Increased capacity of Indonesia HEIs to implement R&D on Biofuel/Biorefinery Integrating and optimizing indoor and field laboratories for UMG
5 Increased capacity of Indonesia HEIs to implement R&D on Sustainability Aspect
6 Increasing capacity of Indonesia HEI in industrial R&D collaboration 1) to develop supply chain network for biofuel/biorefinery and BIPV - NZEB in Yogyakarta, Central Java, West Java, Jakarta, Bangka and Sulawesi, 2) to integrate R&D facilities in Indonesian HEI to the supply chain and 3) to develop capacity in producing comercial service based on R&D network
7 Increasing capacity of Indonesia HEI in implementing aspect of quality assurance in R&D of PV system component To implement system of quality assurance in PV lab in UMG and vocational schools in Bangka

University of Colorado at Boulder

# Activities
1 Provide experts and accesses to conduct capacity building for Indonesia HEIs to 1) implement R&D in tropical NZEB, 2) implement R&D in tropical BIPV, 3) implement R&D on Biofuel/Biorefinery, 4) implement R&D on Sustainability Aspect, 5) implement industrial R&D collaboration, 6) implement aspect of quality assurance in R&D of PV system component, and 7) develop international network in R&D